STIs are spread predominantly by sexual contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex.
Some STIs can also be spread non-sexual means such as via blood or blood products. Many STIs—including chlamydia, gonorrhoea, primarily hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis—can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. A person can have an STI without having obvious symptoms of disease.
Common symptoms of STIs include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge or burning in men, genital ulcers, and abdominal pain. More than 1 million STIs are acquired every day. Each year, there are estimated million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs: More than million people are living with genital HSV herpes infection.
STIs can have serious consequences beyond the immediate impact of the infection itself. Counselling and behavioural interventions offer primary prevention against STIs including HIVas well as against unintended pregnancies. Unfortunately, lack of public awareness, lack of training of health workers, and long-standing, widespread stigma around STIs remain barriers to greater and more effective use of these interventions.
When used correctly and consistently, condoms offer one of the most effective methods of protection against STIs, including HIV. Female condoms are effective and safe, but are not used as widely by national programmes as male condoms. Accurate diagnostic tests for STIs are widely used in high-income countries. These are especially useful for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infections. However, in low- and middle-income countries, diagnostic tests are largely unavailable.
Where testing is available, it is often expensive and geographically inaccessible; and patients often need to wait a long time or need to return to receive results. As "Common sexually transmitted diseases" result, follow up can be impeded and care or treatment can be incomplete. The syphilis test is already in use in some resource-limited settings. The test is accurate, can provide results in 15 to 20 minutes, and is easy to use with minimal training. Rapid syphilis tests have been shown to increase the number of pregnant women tested for syphilis.
However, increased efforts are still needed in most low- and middle-income countries to ensure that all pregnant women receive a syphilis test. Several rapid tests for other STIs are under development and have the potential Common sexually transmitted diseases improve STI diagnosis and treatment, especially in resource-limited settings. Resistance of STIs—in particular gonorrhoea—to antibiotics has increased rapidly in recent years and has reduced treatment options. Antimicrobial resistance for other STIs, though less common, also exists, making prevention and prompt treatment critical.
Low- and middle-income countries rely on identifying consistent, easily recognizable signs and symptoms to guide treatment, without the use of laboratory tests.
This is called syndromic management. This approach, which often relies on clinical algorithms, allows health workers to diagnose a specific infection on the basis of observed syndromes e.
Syndromic management is simple, assures rapid, same-day treatment, and avoids expensive or unavailable Common sexually transmitted diseases tests. However, this approach misses infections that do not demonstrate any syndromes - the majority of STIs globally. Safe and highly effective vaccines are available for 2 STIs: These vaccines have represented major advances in STI prevention. HPV vaccine is available as part of routine immunization programmes in 65 countries, most of them high- and middle-income.
Research to develop vaccines against herpes and HIV is advanced, with several vaccine candidates in early clinical development. Research into vaccines for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis is in earlier stages of development.
Other biomedical interventions to prevent some STIs include adult male circumcision and microbicides. Despite considerable efforts to identify simple interventions that can reduce risky sexual behaviour, behaviour change remains a Common sexually transmitted diseases challenge.
Research has demonstrated the need to focus on carefully defined populations, consult extensively with the identified target populations, and involve them in design, implementation and evaluation.
People seeking screening and treatment for STIs face numerous problems. These include limited resources, stigmatization, Common sexually transmitted diseases quality of services, and little or no follow-up of sexual partners. WHO develops global norms and standards for STI treatment and prevention, strengthens systems for surveillance and monitoring, including those for drug-resistant gonorrhoea, and leads the setting of the global research agenda on STIs.
PLoS Med 10 2: Sexually transmitted infections STIs 3 August Key facts More than 1 million sexually transmitted infections STIs are acquired every day worldwide. Each year, there are an estimated million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs: More than million people are estimated to have genital infection with herpes simplex virus HSV.
More than million women have a human papillomavirus HPV infection 1. Over pregnant women were infected with syphilis resulting in approximately adverse birth outcomes including stillbirth in 2.
In some cases, STIs can have serious reproductive health consequences beyond the immediate impact of the infection itself e. More than 30 different bacteria, "Common sexually transmitted diseases" and parasites are known to be transmitted through sexual contact.
Eight of these pathogens are linked to the greatest incidence of sexually transmitted disease.
Common sexually transmitted diseases Of these 8 infections, 4 are currently curable: The other 4 are viral infections and are incurable: Symptoms or disease due to the incurable viral infections can be reduced or modified through treatment. Worldwide, an estimated 25 million unsafe abortions occur each year 28 September Preventing unsafe abortion 19 February Ghanaian health workers use mobile phones to collect real-time maternal health data 24 August Maternal death reviews help countries identify missed opportunities and plan interventions 16 August Viet Nam breastfeeding campaign normalizes practice, improves rates 2 August Sexually transmitted diseases Common sexually transmitted diseases are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact.
The causes of STDs. There are many STDs, including chlamydia, genital warts, syphilis, and trich. This article looks at some of the most common STDs, the. A person can have an STI without having obvious symptoms of disease. Common symptoms of STIs include vaginal discharge, urethral.