All planning for forest use and conservation faces conflicts over "Trees and forests for whom and for what? These conflicts result from differences in what people want and value, and how they define priorities.
Conflict negotiation is when two or more persons with different priorities attempt to reach solutions that will be acceptable to everyone. First are disagreements within the planning team and its advisory committees.
Second are disagreements between your forestry agency and one or more interest groups. Third are disagreements between two or more interest groups external to your agency, but which need to be resolved in order for the planning to move forward. Efficient and mature negotiation on how well they are managed, these conflicts can be a productive aspect of the planning.
They indicate the existence of multiple viewpoints, and the competition of ideas. But when serious conflicts are Efficient and mature negotiation resolved, they can totally destroy the planning process. In this chapter, we lead you through a few basic principles of effective negotiation.
Your capacity to translate these principles into results Efficient and mature negotiation on your commitment and negotiating skills. Like other skills in planning, negotiation needs to be continuously improved through a process of goals, actions, and feedback. Each individual in a conflict needs a clear view of what it wants, and how this requires the cooperation of another person.
Each individual must perceive that negotiation offers a positive gain or reduction of a potential loss. Third, each individual must recognize what the other person's need is, and then be willing to discuss a range of solutions that may satisfy those needs. If one or more of these conditions is not met, there can be no negotiation. We illustrate with an example Box Your agency is not in a good position to negotiate without a clear assessment of 1 the conflicting sides to an issue, and 2 the behavioral strategies "Efficient and mature negotiation" people will employ to get their way.
You need to thoroughly research these issues. Moreover, you need to choose the leaders of your planning team and advisory committees for their skills in negotiation. In many practical cases, this should be the primary criterion for their selection.
Worksheet 36 helps you examine the attitudes and behavior of good negotiators. Good negotiators are able to visualize the best possible outcome of a negotiation process, and work hard to achieve it.
This is your ideal goal, and the maximum you can expect when everything goes well. At the same time, you must define the minimum you can accept.
This minimum is your "walk away" position, meaning that you have a better option than to continue the negotiation. Part I Suppose that the Green Future Society strongly opposes all logging in South Region on claims that logging causes environmental damage.
Green Future insists that your strategic plan must include the goal of stopping all logging in South Region within the next two years. They provide paid jobs and a contribution to South Region's income.
Neither company is interested in stopping its operations. What are your approaches to negotiate this conflict? Negotiation will not be possible if any of the parties aims to destroy another as its primary purpose i. Green Future may use militant demands that anger the companies and your forestry agency.
Nevertheless, the situation is open to negotiation if Green Future wants to maintain continuing relationships with your agency, or if it needs something from the forest products industries. In this case, you must convince Green Future that it has no good alternative other than to negotiate an agreement that will satisfy Martinez, Bella Vista, and your agency.
You cannot negotiate with people who do not allow their views to be questioned. For example, Juan Pedro Martinez may insist that each company has the "right" to harvest timber in the way it knows best. For Martinez, this is an article of faith that is not open to debate. His dogma dominates his reason. You have to redirect Martinez away from issues that for him are not negotiable towards others that offer hope for common ground.
If you can get him to say "yes" to other points such as on the need for background studiesthen perhaps later he will be "Efficient and mature negotiation" willing to consider the central issue. Negotiation is impossible if one group feels powerless in relation to others. Suppose, for example, that Green Future believes that forest industries always "win" with your forestry agency, and that environmental NGOs always "lose. Green Future has no reason to negotiate through your agency.
Instead, it will choose a more radical means to try to get what it wants. To prevent this from happening, you have no choice other than to cede important procedural points to Green Future, and to tolerate its hostilities and resentment. But even as you take exceptional measures to build a working relationship and show fairness, you have to decide how far you will go before your relationship with Green Future becomes too expensive.
What is your best alternative to not negotiating with them? What will you gain and lose by walking away? You must know your ideal goal, and introduce it early in the negotiation. You also must have a clear idea of your Efficient and mature negotiation away" position, but you reserve it for later. You may have to adjust it frequently, since options tend to appear and disappear with the dynamics of bargaining.
Thus a good negotiator knows beforehand which tradeoffs he or she is prepared to make. At the same time, a good negotiator decides in advance which principles and points not to concede under any circumstances.
Worksheet 37 helps you think about the goals, compromises, and alternatives that define the negotiation framework also see Box Part II In our example, suppose that the Green Future Society continues to insist that logging be stopped within the next two years, and that this position has wide popular and political support. But what will Green Future gain and lose if its demand is modified to five years, during which time all logging in South Region will be required to adopt low-impact harvesting methods?
If this compromise fails, is your agency willing to tolerate continued opposition of Green Future in the coming years? As Efficient and mature negotiation different option, would Martinez and Bella Vista accept environmental impact assessment for logging, and will this be their best alternative compared with the alternative of closing down? These illustrate the types of questions that should define the negotiation.
Instead, most people interact with each other according to
Efficient and mature negotiation styles developed in their families, religions, and communities.
Thus rather than pursuing a particular type of strategy, many individuals negotiate on the basis of habit, intuition, and stereotypes about other persons.
In comparison, truly effective negotiators apply a variety of negotiating strategies in different situations.
With practice, each of these strategies can be learned. Your planning team must be able to call upon a variety of negotiating strategies that vary with the different types of conflicts it faces. Three basic strategies are: It minimizes the degree of conflict by generating trust and kindness. You are looking for common ground and joint interests, and you want everyone to benefit. You compromise, and you expect other people to do the same. The approach is at its best when other individuals similarly cooperate.
But it does not work when others Efficient and mature negotiation your "soft" approach as a weakness that they can exploit. You apply pressure to get your way. This approach is important when you absolutely Efficient and mature negotiation win, even if other persons will lose. The approach works well when you face weak or confused negotiators. It is less appropriate when a long-term relationship has to be maintained, or when your opponents are well prepared.
This is sometimes called "interest-based bargaining," or "principled negotiation. The negotiator who favors "principled
Efficient and mature negotiation does not rely on a forceful personality, or on a position of power in the relationship.
Rather, he or she recognizes that everyone has legitimate interests to be satisfied. These interests are met through a search for mutual agreement rather than by application one-sided force. Yet this analytical approach also has its limitations. The two or more sides
Efficient and mature negotiation an argument are not always logical.
It can be impossible to avoid taking positions when individuals on the other side of a dispute are being irrational. This is especially true Efficient and mature negotiation the conflict is largely about differences in beliefs and values. A competent negotiator knows what kind of image he or she projects.
Good negotiators also recognize and respond to the negotiating styles on the opposite side of an argument. For example, is your conflict with someone who generally needs social approval, and who therefore will favor cooperative negotiation? Or is your conflict with an aggressive personality who enjoys defeating an opponent? Other styles include negotiators who are intuitive, naive, deceptive, hostile, sarcastic, and so on. In each situation, you try to understand your negotiating personality in relation to others.
This increases the prospects for your negotiation to succeed Box Part III In our illustration, Juan Pedro Martinez is a dominant individual of age 60, who enjoys a good fight, and who made his fortune in the logging business by taking a few risks. Your planning team cannot talk to Martinez through a "soft bargaining" person. In contrast, the year old president of the Green Future Society, Silvia Salinas, is an aspiring politician from a socially prominent family.
For Salinas, personal relationships are exceptionally important. She is a known pragmatist, and she likes working with people. Your planning team can negotiate with her in ways that are not possible with Martinez.
Box 39 presents the advantages and disadvantages of the different negotiation styles. You should review them each time your planning team prepares to interact with people who strongly disagree with you, or with each other.
The climate for negotiation is determined by both physical and emotional factors. Ed's "top ten" list of negotiation strategies to help you make better deals You can become an effective listener by allowing the other person to It's the old story about the grass being greener in other person's backyard.
Negotiation between two individuals is a common task that typically involves. solutions in Nb and Nw spaces, and is referred to as the Pareto efficiency (or. In comparison, truly effective negotiators apply a variety of negotiating In contrast, the year old president of the Green Future Society, Silvia Salinas, is an.