This site uses cookies. By continuing, your consent is assumed. Learn more


Asian maritime history


Maritime history dates back thousands of years. In ancient maritime history[1] evidence of maritime trade between civilizations dates back at least two millennia. In ancient historyvarious vessels were used for coastal fishing and travel. The Arabian Sea has been an important marine trade route since the era of the Asian maritime history sailing vessels from possibly as early as the 3rd millennium BC, certainly the late 2nd millennium BC through later days in the Age of exploration.

By the time of Julius Caesarseveral well-established combined land-sea trade routes depended upon water transport through the sea around the rough inland terrain features to its north. Navigation was known in Sumer between the 4th and the 3rd millennium BC.

There are indications as stone tools and traces left on a rhinoceros skeleton that suggest early hominids crossed the sea and colonized the Philippine island of Luzon in a time frame as early astoyears ago.

There is evidence that the Neanderthals hunted marine mammals. The earliest seaworthy boats may have been developed 65, years ago, according to evidence explaining the habitation of Australia. In the history of whalinghumans began whaling in pre-historic times. The oldest known method Asian maritime history catching whales is to simply drive them ashore by placing a number of small boats between the whale and the open sea and attempting to frighten them with noise, activity, and perhaps small, non-lethal weapons such as arrows.

Typically, this was used for small species, such as Pilot WhalesBelugas and Narwhals. Over thousands of years of human migrations and the rise of ancient civilizations, seafaring exploration led to ocean trade routes.

It is "Asian maritime history" that navigation as a science originated on the Indus river some years ago. There is no precedent in history of open ocean navigation of that magnitude when most of Mediterranean sailing was performed through routes following the continental coast. This was possible mostly due to the creation of multihull ship design and a sail similar to lateen sailthe reduction of ballast and lightweight construction gave the speed necessary to cover those distances in lower periods of time.

Also the wayfinding [11] sailing techniques were crucial, enabling large scale open ocean trade routes. See more in Polynesian navigation. Ancient maritime routes usually began in the Far East or down river from Madhya Pradesh with transshipment via historic Bharuch Bharakucchatraversed past the inhospitable coast of today's Iran then split around Hadhramaut into two streams north into the Gulf of Aden and thence into the Levantor south into Alexandria via Red Sea Asian maritime history such as Axum.

Asian maritime history major route involved transhipping to pack animal caravan, travel through desert country and risk of bandits and extortionate tolls by local potentiates.

Through an investigation of trade...

Maritime trade began with safer coastal trade and evolved with the utilization of the monsoon winds, soon resulting in trade crossing boundaries such as the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Ancient Egyptians had knowledge of sail construction. The first warships of Ancient Egypt were constructed during the early Middle Kingdomand perhaps — at the end of the Old Kingdombut the first mention and a detailed description of a large enough and heavily armed ship dates from XVI BC.

Carport and equipped outside rook over the waters, for many paddlers, having covered rowers deck not Asian maritime history from the side, but and top. And twelve rowers aft worked on three steering oars. And blocked Our Majesty ship inside three partitions bulkheads so as not to drown it by ramming the wicked, and the sailors had time to repair the hole. And Our Majesty arranged four towers for archers — two behind, and two on the nose and one above the other "Asian maritime history" — on the mast with narrow loopholes.

Asian maritime history Thutmose III achieved warships displacement up to tons and carried up to ten new heavy and light to seventeen catapults based bronze springs, called "siege crossbow" — more precisely, siege bows.

Still appeared giant catamarans that are heavy warships and times of Ramesses III used even when the Ptolemaic dynasty. Some Egyptologists dispute that an Egyptian Pharaoh would authorize such an expedition, [18] except for the reason of trade in the ancient maritime routes.

The belief in Herodotus' account, handed down to him by oral tradition[19] is primarily because he stated with disbelief that the Phoenicians " as they sailed on a westerly course round the southern end of Libya Africathey had the sun on their right — to northward of them " The Histories 4. So fantastic an assertion is this of a typical example of some seafarers' story and Herodotus therefore may never have mentioned it, at all, had it not been Asian maritime history on facts and made with the Asian maritime history insistence.

This early description of Necho's expedition as a whole is contentious, though; it is recommended that one keep an open mind on the subject; [22] but StraboPolybiusand Ptolemy doubted the description.

Lloyd suggests that the Greeks at this Asian maritime history understood that anyone going south far enough and then turning west would have the Sun on their right but found it unbelievable that Africa reached so far south.

He suggests that "It is extremely unlikely that an Egyptian king would, or could, have acted as Necho is depicted as doing" and Asian maritime history the story might have been triggered by the failure of Sataspes ' attempt to circumnavigate Africa under Xerxes the Great. In ancient times the Kingdom of Puntwhich is believed by several Egyptologists to have been situated in the area of modern-day Somaliahad a steady trade link with the Ancient Egyptians and exported the Asian maritime history natural resources such as myrrhfrankincense and gum.

This trade network continued all the way into the classical era. Somali sailors used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo. The Phoenicians were an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaanwith its heartland along the coast of modern-day LebanonSyria and northern Israel.

Though ancient boundaries of such city-centered cultures fluctuated, the city of Tyre seems to have been the southernmost. Sarepta between Sidon and Tyre, is the most thoroughly excavated city of the Phoenician homeland. The Phoenicians often traded by means of a galleya man-powered sailing vessel.

East Asian Maritime History, Xiao...

They were the first civilization to create the bireme. There is still debate on the subject of whether the Canaanites and Phoenicians were different peoples or not. The Greek trireme was the most common ship of the ancient Mediterranean world, employing the propulsion power of oarsmen. Many in ancient western societies, such as Ancient Greecewere in awe of the seas and deified them, believing that man no longer belonged to himself when once he Asian maritime history on a sea voyage.

They believed that he was liable to be sacrificed at any time to the anger of the great Sea God.

(See An Overview of Chinese...

Before the Greeks, the Carians were an early Asian maritime history seagoing people that travelled far. Early writers do not give a good idea about the progress of navigation nor that of the man's seamanship.

One of the early stories of seafaring was that of Odysseus. In Greek mythologythe Argonauts were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan Waraccompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece.

Their name comes from their ship, the Argo which in turn was named after its builder Argus. Thus, "Argonauts" literally means "Argo sailors". The voyage of the Greek navigator Pytheas of Massalia is an example of a very early voyage. The periplusliterally "a sailing-around', in the ancient navigation of PhoeniciansGreeksand Romans was a manuscript document that listed in order the ports and coastal landmarks, with approximate distances between, that the captain of a vessel could expect to find along a Asian maritime history. Several examples of periploi have survived.

Piracywhich is a robbery committed at sea or sometimes on the shore, dates back to Classical Asian maritime history and, in all likelihood, much further. The TyrrheniansIllyrians [31] and Thracians [ citation needed Asian maritime history were known as pirates in ancient times.

The island of Lemnos long resisted Greek influence and remained a Asian maritime history for Thracian pirates. By the 1st century BC, there were pirate states along the Anatolian coast, threatening the commerce of the Roman Empire.

The earliest seagoing culture in the Mediterranean is associated with Cardium pottery. Their earliest impressed ware sites, dating to — BC, are in Epirus and Corfu. Settlements then appear in Albania and Dalmatia on the eastern Adriatic coast dating to between and BC. Also during Su Carroppu culture in Sardinia, already in its early stages low strata into Su Coloru cave, c. This suggests a seafaring expansion by planting colonies along the coast.

The burial mound of the Athenian dead can still be seen at Marathon. But the Athenians had evacuated the city by sea, and under Themistocles they defeated the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis. In the course Asian maritime history doing so Athens enrolled all the island states and some mainland allies into an alliance, called the Delian League because its treasury was kept on the sacred island of Delos.

Asian maritime & trade chronology....

Asian maritime history The Spartansalthough they had taken part in the war, withdrew into isolation after it, allowing Athens to establish unchallenged naval and commercial power.

The Achaean League was a confederation of Greek city states in Achaeaa territory on the northern coast of the Peloponnese. The League's dominance was not to last long, however. Lucius Mummius received the cognomen Achaicus "conqueror of Achaea" for his role. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula c.

In its twelve-century existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchyto a republic based on a combination of oligarchy and democracyto an autocratic empire. It came to dominate Western Europe and the entire area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest and assimilation.

The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. The main cause of the Punic Wars was the clash of interests between the existing Carthaginian Asian maritime history and the expanding Roman sphere of influence.

The Romans were initially interested in expansion via Sicilypart of which lay under Carthaginian control. At the start of the first Punic WarCarthage was the dominant "Asian maritime history" of the Mediterraneanwith an Asian maritime history maritime empire, while Rome was the rapidly ascending power in Italy. By the end of the third Asian maritime history, after the deaths of many hundreds of thousands of soldiers from both sides, Rome had conquered Carthage's empire and razed the city, becoming in the process the most powerful state of the Western Mediterranean.

This was a turning point that Asian maritime history that the civilization of the ancient Mediterranean would pass to the modern world via Europe instead of Africa. The Coraclea small single-passenger-sized float, has been used in Britain since before the first Roman invasion as noted by the invaders.

Coracles are round or oval in shape, made of a wooden frame with a hide stretched over it then tarred to provide waterproofing. Being so light, an operator can carry the light craft over the shoulder. They are capable of operating in mere inches of water due to the keel-less hull.

The early people of Wales used these boats for fishing and light travel and updated models are still in use to this day on the rivers of Scotland and Wales. Early Britons also used the world-common hollowed tree trunk canoe. Examples of these canoes have been found buried in marshes and mud banks of rivers at lengths of upward eight feet.

In a notable archaeological find, named the " Dover Bronze Age Boat ", was unearthed from beneath what is modern day Dover, England. The Bronze Age boat which is about 9. The hull was of half oak logs and side panels also of oak were stitched on with yew lashings. Both the straight-grained oak and yew bindings are now extinct as a shipbuilding method in England.

The boat could have easily carried a significant amount of cargo and with a strong crew may have been able to traverse near thirty nautical miles in a Asian maritime history. The Norsemenor 'people from the North', were people from southern and central Scandinavia which established states and settlements Northern Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century.

Vikings has been a common term for Norsemen in the early medieval periodespecially in connection with raids and monastic plundering made by Norsemen in Great Britain and Ireland. Leif Ericson was an Icelandic explorer known to be the first European to have landed in North America presumably in NewfoundlandCanada. The Saga of the Greenlanders tells that Leif set out around the year to Asian maritime history Bjarni's route with 15 crew members, but going north.

In the Indian maritime historythe world's first tidal dock was built in phase II of Lothal [38] [39] during the Harappan civilisation near the present day Mangrol harbour on the Gujarat coast. Other ports were probably at Balakot and Dwarka. The East Asian Maritime Asian maritime history Its Fabrics of Power ( East Asian Economic and Socio-cultural Studies: East Asian Maritime History). Maritime history dates back thousands of years.

In ancient maritime history, evidence of. South Asia had multiple maritime trade routes which connected it to. This introduction considers what made the East Asian maritime realm highly unusual in world history, focusing on the maritime prohibitions of China, Korea, and.

News feed