The Four temperament theory is a proto- psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: The Greek physician Hippocrates c. Though modern medical science does not define a fixed relationship between internal secretions and personality, some psychological personality type systems use categories similar to the Greek temperaments.
Temperament theory has its roots in the ancient four humors theory.
It may have origins in ancient Egypt  or Mesopotamia but it was the Greek physician Hippocrates — BC who developed it into a medical theory. He believed certain human moods, "Personality types melancholy choleric phlegmatic sanguine" and behaviors were caused by an excess or lack of body fluids called "humors": The word "temperament" itself comes from Latin " temperare ", "to mix". In the ideal personality, the complementary characteristics of warm-cool and dry-moist were exquisitely balanced.
In four less ideal types, one of the four qualities was dominant over all the others. In the remaining four types, one pair of qualities dominated the complementary pair; for example, warm and moist dominated cool and dry. These latter four were the temperamental categories Galen named " sanguine ", " choleric ", " melancholic " and " phlegmatic " after the bodily humors, respectively. Each was the result of an excess of one of the humors that produced, in turn, the imbalance in paired qualities.
In his Canon of Medicine a standard medical text at many medieval universitiesPersian polymath Avicenna — AD extended the theory of temperaments to encompass " emotional aspects, mental capacity, moral attitudes, self-awarenessmovements and dreams. Nicholas Culpeper —described the humours as acting as governing principles in bodily health, with astrological correspondences,  and explained their influence upon physiognomy and personality.
Hans Eysenck — was Personality types melancholy choleric phlegmatic sanguine of the first psychologists to analyze personality differences using a psycho- statistical method factor analysisand his research led him to believe that temperament is biologically based.
The factors he proposed in his book Dimensions of Personality were neuroticism Nthe tendency to experience negative emotions, and extraversion Ethe tendency to enjoy positive events, especially social ones. By pairing the two dimensionsEysenck noted how the results were similar to the four ancient temperaments. Examples are DiSC assessmentsocial styles, and a theory that adds a fifth temperament.
Finally, the Interaction Styles of Linda V. Modern medical science has rejected the theories of the four temperaments, though their use persists as a metaphor within certain psychological fields. Most individuals tend to have aspects of their personality that identify with each of the four temperaments. However, there are usually two primary temperaments that are displayed at a significantly higher level.
An individual could be any combination of the following four temperaments:.
The personality type of Sanguine is described primarily as being highly talkative, enthusiastic, active, and social. Sanguines tend to be more extroverted and enjoy being part of a crowd; they find that being social, outgoing, and charismatic is easy to accomplish.
Choleric individuals also tend to be more extroverted. They are described as being independent, decisive, and goal oriented. They enjoy being in charge of a group since they have many leadership qualities as well as ambition.
Choleric personalities also have a logical and fact-based outlook on the world. These individuals tend to be analytical, detail oriented, and are deep thinkers and feelers. They are introverted and try to avoid being singled out in a crowd.
A phlegmatic individual tends to be relaxed, peaceful, quiet, and easy-going. Phlegmatic individuals also are good at generalizing ideas or problems to the world and making compromises.
When the concept of the temperaments was on the wane, many critics dropped the phlegmatic, or defined it purely negatively, such as the German philosopher Immanuel Kantas the absence of temperament. In the five temperaments theory, the classical phlegmatic temperament is in fact deemed to be a neutral temperament, whereas the "relationship-oriented introvert" position traditionally held by the phlegmatic is declared to be a new "fifth temperament".
In Waldorf education and anthroposophythe temperaments are believed to help understand personality. Christian writer Tim LaHaye has attempted to repopularize the ancient temperaments through his books. Writer Florence Littauer describes the four personality types in her book Personality Plus. The music, thus the ballet, is in five parts: Carl Nielsen 's Symphony No.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the "four humors" in Greco-Roman medicine, a specific form of the more universal proto-medical concept of Personality types melancholy choleric phlegmatic sanguine. For the symphony by Carl Nielsen, see Symphony No.
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The Choleric temperament has three combinations: Choleric-Sanguine, Choleric- Phlegmatic, and Choleric-Melancholy. The Choleric is the least occurring of the. This is an interactive version of the Open Four Temperaments Scales.
The terms sanguine, choleric, melancholic and phlegmatic were coined by the Greek. Four personality types—Choleric, Sanguine, Phlegmatic, Melancholic—were selected using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and tested on ten self- report.